Perm (Russian: Пермь; IPA: [pʲɛrmʲ];) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
According to the 2010 Census, Perm's population is 991,162, down from 1,001,653 recorded in the 2002 Census and 1,090,944 recorded in 1989 Census. As of the 2010 Census, the city was the thirteenth most populous in Russia.
From 1940 to 1957 it was named Molotov (Russian: Мо́лотов [ˈmolətəf]).
The name Perm is of finno-ugric etymology, likely of Uralic (Komi or Veps) origin. Komi (Komi-Permyak: Перем, Perem; Komi: Перым, Perym) is a member of the Permic group of Fenno-Ugriche Uralic languages, which is also named for Perm. Likewise, the geologic period of the Permian takes its name from the toponym in Finnish or Vepsian language "Perämaa", means "Far away Land".
The city is located on the bank of the Kama River upon hilly terrain. The Kama is the main tributary of the Volga River and one of the deepest and most picturesque rivers of Russia. This river is the waterway which grants the Ural Mountains access to the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. The Kama divides the city into two parts: the central part and the right bank part. The city stretches for 70 kilometers (43 mi) along the Kama and 40 kilometers (25 mi) across it. The city street grid parallels the Kama River, traveling generally east-west, while other main streets run perpendicularly to those following the river. The grid pattern accommodates the hills of the city where it crosses them.
A permanent wave, commonly called a perm or "permanent", involves the use of heat and/or chemicals to break and reform the cross-linking bonds of the hair structure. The hair is washed and wrapped on a former and waving lotion or 'reagent' is applied. This solution reacts chemically softening the inner structure of the hair by breaking some of the cross links within and between the protein chains of the hair. The hair swells, stretches and softens, then moulds around the shape of the former.
In addition, the process is often used for the chemical hair straightening, or relaxing (a process first developed by Renaud Whittington). This process makes use of the same chemical reactions as that of the permanent wave, but the hair is combed straight rather than wrapped around formers.
A perm is a unit of permeance or "water vapor transmission" given a certain differential in partial pressures on either side of a material or membrane.
The base normal SI unit for permeance is the kilogram per second per square meter per pascal.
A variant of the metric perm is used in DIN Standard 53122, where permeance is also expressed in grams per square meter per day, but at a fixed, "standard" vapor-pressure difference of 17.918 mmHg. This unit is thus 17.918 times smaller than a metric perm, corresponding to about 0.084683 of a US perm.
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